新型城鎮化藍皮書(2014)

摘 要


 黨的十八大把推進城鎮化作為解決制約我國經濟持續健康發展結構性問題的一個重大舉措,強調堅持走中國特色新型城鎮化道路,這就要求我們準确把握城鎮化規律,确立科學的推進新型城鎮化的行動框架。為更好地服務于理論研究、政府決策和企業投資,以太坊行情最新聯合中國系統工程學會、中國區域科學協會和北京大學金融創新與發展研究中心共同組織編撰了“新型城鎮化藍皮書”。本書從城市消費者的視角重新審視城市管理和投資,并總結和提煉新型城鎮化過程中的一些創新實踐和創新思想,為新型城鎮化的政策制定與頂層設計提供一定借鑒。全書由總報告和分報告構成,其中分報告分專題篇、區域篇和實踐篇三部分。


 總報告包括兩篇文章,第一篇《城市消費者——新型城鎮化的新視角》,在總結各地新型城鎮化實踐的基礎上,從經濟學角度解讀人與城市發展之間的關系,創造性地提出城市消費者概念,系統地闡述城市消費者的内涵及其理論和實踐基礎,指出城市消費者概念有助于重塑城市管理和投資理念,為解讀和落實“人的城鎮化”提供了一種新的視角和抓手。第二篇《基于城市消費者的城市發展評價》,借助公開統計數據對城市消費者的數量和質量進行測度,以衡量城市的影響力和輻射力,以及城市消費者對于城市的貢獻能力和貢獻的價值;同時基于城市消費者構建指标體系,對城市的發展階段作出評價,為城市管理和投資提供參考。


 專題篇共收錄十二篇文章,分别對新型城鎮化所涉及的集體建設用地、房地産、投融資、産業轉型、智慧城市等領域的問題進行專題論述,深入總結該領域的政策環境、發展現狀、主要存在的問題,提出符合新型城鎮化要求的具有針對性的解決路徑。本部分内容由很多亮點,如《城市、土地及住房問題分析》,分析地方治理結構與分稅制對城市土地财政和地方融資平台行為的影響,闡述城市土地供應模式與土地财政的運作機制,并預判城市規劃、土地政策、房地産稅、金融體系等領域的改革前景;又如《新型城鎮化背景下的城市投融資轉變》,指出未來城市融資中政府将向獨立的信用主體轉變、平台公司将向市場化企業轉變、企業将向城市綜合運營商轉變,對政府和企業有重要的啟示意義。


 區域篇以區域為研究對象,收錄三篇報告,包括《浦東新區城鎮化發展報告》、《基于三大城市群比較的京津冀發展策略初探》和《基于新型城鎮化的武漢城市圈城鄉文化時空整合分析》,從不同角度分析了三個區域的發展狀況,并提出優化建議。


 實踐篇共收錄三篇報告,選取各地在新型城鎮化過程中具有示範作用的案例,總結各地在土地二次開發、政企合作以及智慧城市等方面的經驗和舉措,為其它城市提供借鑒和啟示。


Abstract

The Eighteenth National Congress of the CPC regards urbanization as a major initiative to solve the structural problems that constraint sustained and healthy development of China's economy, and stresses the road of new urbanization with Chinese characteristics, which requires us to accurately grasp the law of urbanization and establish scientific action framework to promote new urbanization. As the starting point to serve the government decision-making and enterprise investment, this book re-examines urban management and investment from the perspective of urban consumers; and summarizes and refines those innovative practices and ideas in the process of new urbanization, so as to provide reference information for the policy development and top-level design of new urbanization. The book is divided into overall reports and sub-reports which contain three parts: special reports, regional reports and practical reports.


The overall reports include two articles. The first is Urban Consumer: New Perspective for Urbanization, which, on the basis of concluding practices of different places, creatively puts forward the concept of urban consumer through interpreting the relationship between human being and urban development; further, the article systematically clarifies the meaning and both  theoretical and practical foundations of urban consumer, pointing out that  the concept of urban consumer will conduce to reshaping the philosophy of urban management and investment, which provides a new perspective and starting point for understanding and implementation of urbanization for human being. The second article is Evaluation of Urban Development on the Perspective of Urban Consumers, which conducts a statistical study about urban consumer on both in quantity and quality to measure the impact and radiation ability of city, as well as the contribution of urban consumer. In addition, by constructing an evaluation index system for urban development, this article tries to provide reference points for city management and investment of governments and enterprises.


The special reports contain a total of twelve articles. These articles summarize the policy environment, development status and existing problems of many fields, including collective construction land, real estate, investment and financing, industrial transformation and smart city etc.; and then propose targeted solution methods that meet the requirement of new urbanization. This section has many bright spots, for example, An Analysis of China’s Urban, Land and Housing Problems expounds the urban land supply patterns and operation mechanisms of land finance through analyzing the impact of local governance structure and tax distribution system on urban land finance and local financing platforms, which has some enlightenment on the reform of urban planning, land policy, real estate taxes and other areas. For another example, Changes in Urban Investment and Financing Brought by New Urbanization points out that during the future city financing, governments would turn out to be independent credit subject, platform enterprises will be more market-oriented, and social companies will transform into the comprehensive operators of the city, providing important referent value for both government and enterprises.


Regional reports focus on area study and include three reports which are Urbanization Development Report of Pudong New Area, A Study of Development Strategies of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Region based on the Comparison of Three Major Urban agglomerations of China and On Urban-rural Culture Spatiotemporal Integration based on the New Type of Urbanization—A case study of Wuhan City circle. These three articles respectively analyze the development of each area from different aspects and thus advocate some recommendations.


Practice reports select several demonstration cases in different areas’ process of new urbanization. There are three reports in this parts, respectively concluding the experience and actions of land secondary development, public-private-partnership and smart city, to provide lessons and inspirations for other cities.